1846 - Frederick Douglass publishes the North Star newspaper.
The North Star, later Frederick Douglass’ Paper, antislavery newspaper published by African American abolitionist Frederick Douglass. First published on December 3, 1847, using funds Douglass earned during a speaking tour in Great Britain and Ireland, The North Star soon developed into one of the most influential African American antislavery publications of the pre-Civil War era. The name of the newspaper paid homage to the fact that escaping slaves used the North Star in the night sky to guide them to freedom. It was published in Rochester, New York, a city known for its opposition to slavery. The motto of the newspaper was, “Right is of no sex—Truth is of no color—God is the Father of us all, and we are brethren.”
In the first issue of The North Star, Douglass explained his reasons for establishing an African American-owned newspaper. He emphasized that he did not want to seem ungrateful to people such as William Lloyd Garrison, a white abolitionist who published the antislavery paper The Liberator. However, he claimed that it is common sense that those who suffer injustice are those who must demand redress and, thus, African American authors, editors, and orators must have their own paper with which to share their voices.
Published weekly, The North Star was four pages long and sold by subscription at the cost of $2 per year to more than 4,000 readers in the United States, Europe, and the West Indies. The first of its four pages focused on current events having to do with abolitionist issues. An occasional feature, “The Den of Villany [sic],” was a forum for Douglass to comment on discrimination in American society. Pages two and three included editorials, letters from readers, articles, poetry, and book reviews, while the fourth page was devoted to advertisements. In the paper, Douglass wrote with great feeling about what he saw as the huge gap between what Americans claimed to be their Christian beliefs and the prejudice and discrimination he witnessed. Douglass was also a staunch supporter of education for African Americans and equal rights for all, including women.
Despite Douglass’s efforts, the paper was not a financial success. He earned extra money lecturing and even mortgaged his home in 1848 to keep the newspaper going. By 1851, financial difficulties caused him to merge The North Star with the Liberty Party Paper, a newspaper published by the abolitionist Gerrit Smith. The resulting publication was known as Frederick Douglass’ Paper, and the newspaper remained relatively consistent in appearance and content despite the name change. Contributors to the paper included Douglass’s coeditor Martin Delany, white abolitionist Julia Griffiths, escaped slave Harriet Jacobs, and even British author Charles Dickens; excerpts from Dickens’s novel Bleak House appeared in the paper in 1853.
In 1851 Douglass broke his friendship with Garrison, who had originally convinced him to join the abolitionist movement. They disagreed about whether it was necessary to have a separate “black-oriented” press and, more importantly, whether violence should be used to end slavery. Douglass strongly believed in a political resolution, while Garrison, though a pacifist, came to believe that violence might be necessary if emancipation were not achieved quickly.
In November 1859 Frederick Douglass’ Paper permanently ceased publication after Douglass left the United States for a lecture tour in England. Although the tour had been planned for some months, it likely saved him from arrest in association with the assault on the federal armoury at Harpers Ferry, Virginia, led by radical abolitionist John Brown in October 1859. When Brown was arrested, letters from Douglass were found among his possessions. Although he did not support Brown’s plans, he knew he would not receive a fair trial and left the United States for six months.